- Broad head, short snout.
Long hind legs with digging tubercle.
Cranial crests at rear of head extend forward diagonally to meet at boss.
Elongated parotoid glands behind cranial crests.
- Gray, brown, or green, with large dark blotches bordered by lighter color.
Bufo cognatus typically reaches an adult length of 4.5-9 cm (1.5-4.5 in).
Bufo cognatus is found in parts of Canada and Montana through the Central Plains states, west into Southern California, Arizona and New Mexico, and south into Mexico.
Bufo cognatus is nocturnal and feeds on insects. When threatened, B. cognatus may camouflage itself by inflating its body and covering its head in the soil.
Breeding in Bufo cognatus occurs from April to September, typically during or after a rainfall.
Bufo cognatus can be seen in open grasslands, cultivated fields, brushy areas, irrigation ditches, streambeds, and flood plains; B. cognatus prefers a drier habitat than most toads, with loose soil for easy burrowing.
The Great Plains toad is not a protected species in Texas and can be legally collected with a hunting license.
In Texas, Bufo cognatus is found in the western half of the state, including the Panhandle.